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Kerfoot Technologies Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

What is the C-SpargerŪ System?

The C-SpargerŪ is a patented innovative oxidation remediation technology, including process and equipment.

How does the C-SpargerŪ Work?

The C-SpargerŪ releases microbubbles of encapsulated ozone that are injected directly into the groundwater. The microbubbles are randomly dispersed through the water and the saturated soil formation. The process combines stripping and treatment, targeting both soil and groundwater compartments. The encapsulated ozone reacts with contaminants (hydrocarbon and chlorinated solvents), producing harmless by-products.

What are the advantages of using the C-SpargerŪ System?

Site clean-up time may be at least 3 to 4 times faster and cost 50% to 75% less than other pump and treat methods.

Does the injection of ozone constitute injection of hazardous waste?

The injection of low-level ozone into the groundwater does not constitute an injection of hazardous material because of the following:

  • The injection occurs beneath the groundwater surface and is adjusted to zero concentration in the vadose zone (area above groundwater).
  • The injection concentration is low (80 to 350 ppmv).
  • The injection quantity is low (less than 1 lb/day or 400 gm/day with use of the wall-mount unit).
  • There is no respiratory risk to a person on the surface. Both DOD and EPA monitoring of groundwater injection has confirmed no ozone in gas recovery wells (vacuum extraction wells) placed above the water table during proper operations.

What are the breakdown products?

The following are the first-order laboratory-isolated breakdown products:

  • Aliphatics (alkanes): acetate, butyrate, formate, propionate
  • BTEX: carboxylic acids
  • Oxygenates:
  • MTBE: TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol), TBF (tertiary butyl formate), formate, oxygen, hydrogen peroxide
  • ETBE: TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol), TBF (tertiary butyl formate), acetate, oxygen, hydrogen peroxide
  • TBA: formaldehyde, acetate, carbon dioxide, water

Do the breakdown products present a problem?

Monitoring for breakdown products of ozone reactions has shown virtually no evidence of the expected compounds. Chemical oxidation of the byproducts and bacterial populations enhanced by an abundance of oxygen and carbon sources appear responsible for this phenomenon.

On what kind of site is ozone oxidation applicable?

  • Drycleaners PCE, TCE, DCE, vinyl chloride
  • MTBE -gasoline MTBE, ETBE, TAME, BTEX, TPH, naphthalene
  • Diesel/fuel oil C6-C30 alkanes (aliphatics) and aromatics
  • Circuit board solvents TCE; 1,1,1-TCA; DCA

What is the soil permeability range for satisfactory system operation?

100 to 10-6 cm/sec (1000 to .01 ft/day)

What are SpargepointsŪ?

SpargepointsŪ are an essential part of the C-SpargerŪ system. They are a microporous screen used to introduce the micro-fine air/ozone bubbles into the saturated zone.

What is the maximum operating pressure for the SpargepointsŪ?

The SpargepointsŪ installed in soil can withstand any applied pressure. However, soil fracturing pressure (>50 psi in soil pores) can result in channeling, and is undesirable unless fracturing is planned as part of the operational design.

What is the radius of influence that can be achieved with a SpargepointŪ?

Saturated Depth above

SpargepointsŪ ROI Multiplier
5 ft 12 ft 2.5
10 ft 20 ft 2.0
20 ft 30 ft 1.5
50 ft 65 ft 1.3

What ozone loading should be used?

Within the radius of influence of a SpargepointŪ, the ozone demand should match the gram requirement for the contaminants present. References published by the ACS and the AEHS may be used for common contaminants.

Do the SpargepointsŪ plug?

Plugging of the SpargepointsŪ has been a rare occurrence if check valves are placed on the system and at the wellhead, and if the SpargepointsŪ are filled with distilled water when not in active use. Ozone flow through the points prevents bacterial fouling.

Why use microporous SpargepointsŪ instead of well screens?

The small size of microbubbles, as opposed to the large bubble produced by use of a well screen, yields greater surface area to volume ratio, therefore greater treatment capacity. The small size of the bubble allows easy movement through the similarly-sized soil pores, with no fracturing of the soil occurring. Gas transfer of oxygen is four times more efficient using microporous SpargpointsŪ versus 10 slot well screen.

What is the power requirement for the systems?

Wall-mount unit: 120vac, 20amp. Uses 400 to 600 kwh per month
Pallet or trailer: 220vac, 60amp. Uses 1600 kwh per month

The above usage reflects the standard system. Additional accessories require additional power.

Why did K-V Associates, Inc. change its name to Kerfoot Technologies, Inc.?

To better represent who we are and what we do. Kerfoot Technologies is an Industry Leader in the development of environmental tools that speed up, simplify, and reduce the cost of groundwater characterization and remediation around the world.